By Sayyid Waḥῑd ‘Alawῑ
Questions that are put forth here is what the Imaginal Realm is? What role and necessity does it have in the Islamic cosmology? The Imaginal Realms attributes and how it can be logically proved? What does the Qur’ān and the narrations of the prophet and the Imams say about it? These and many more are some of the questions that will be raised and answered. Plain English and very few philosophical jargons have been used in this article to make it as plain as possible for the reader. With that said, the reader should have some basic knowledge of Islamic mysticism and philosophy before reading this article. The result and the conclusion of this article is that we are in need of the Imaginable Realm for our existence and that without it we wouldn’t have existed.
This article is about one of the realms of existence within Islamic mysticism called the “Imaginal Realm” and in Arabic, Al Mithāl, and sometimes referred to as Barzakh. It is one of several realms which the great Muslim philosophers and mystics, ‘Urafā, have talked about for centuries. In the Realm of ‘Irfān or Tasawwuf, or what we call in English, Islamic Spiritualism or Mysticism, the entire existence is compared to two arches, Qaws. One arch is descending, and the other arch is ascending. In the descending arch we have the descending realm of Intellect/ Noetic, ‘Aql, and the descending realm of Mithāl/ the Imaginal Realm, until the arch reaches us in the material universe. The descending realm of Intellect gives the rest of the realms its “grace”, Fayḍ, and our existence is due to the descendent realm of Intellect.
On the ascending arch, we take off from the material universe to the realm of the ascending Mithāl/ Imaginal Realm, until we reach the realm of the ascending Intellect, ‘Aql. The ascending realm of Intellect does not give us “grace”, Fayḍ, and we are not dependent on it for our existence as we were in the case of the descending realm of Intellect. The topic of realms will be explained more thoroughly in the forthcoming pages.
In this article we will be shedding light on the attributes and the complexity of this realm and how the great Muslim mystics “reached” that realm. We will also look at the Noble Qur’ān and the narrations of prophet Muḥammad (May Allāh’s peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny) and the Imams and what they have said about this realm of Mithāl or Barzakh. The logical reasons and proof for this realm will also be mentioned, and the differences between Barzakh and the Resurrection.
The Imaginal Realm or Mithāl/Barzakh
The Realm of Mithāl, The Imaginal Realm, is the realm between the material universe and the Intellectual Realm, ‘Aql. It is also referred to as Barzakh, the Intermediate Realm. This realm enjoys some of the features of the material universe and some of the features of the non-material Intellectual or Noetic Realm. The Imaginal Realm has:
- Attributes or characteristics of the material universe like color, shape and size and all the other attributes of the material universe except time, space and the non- physical existence.
- It is non- material and invisible to the physical eye, it has no physical limitation- these are attributes of the Intellectual/ Noetic Realm.
Shaykh al Ishrāq, Suhrawardi (d. 1191) was the first person who introduced this thought of a realm between the two realms of the material and the non-material universe. He claimed that he has “seen” it through what the mystics (‘Urafā) call shuhūd, spiritual visions and he also put forth rational arguments for the existence of such a realm. All the mystics and philosophers who came after shaykh al Ishrāq accepted this thought of an Imaginal Realm, the realm of Mithāl.
The Imaginal Realm is also compared to our dreams were we perceive and see for example a tree. And we know that the tree is not a cat or human being or a stone; it is really a tree in our dreams. Thus, we are able to distinguish it from other things. The second issue is that we also see its shape, color and size. Yet simultaneously, we know that the tree is a non-material object in our dreams.
To better comprehend the order of the different realms, a small introduction should be given.
- The material universe with all its estimated 400 billion galaxies, is the lowest of all realms, this is the universe which we live in.
- The second realm is the Imaginal Realm, Mithāl or Barzakh, which is grand compared to our universe, even though it is not material.
- The third realm is the Noetic/ Intellectual/ Rational Realm, ‘Aql. And this realm is even greater than the rest and incomparable in its grandeur and magnificence.
The different realms all exist simultaneously for which we can also use the term dimensions, Ab’ād, instead of realms. These realms are in fact different dimensions which the wayfarer, sālik, can “see” and “travel” to while physically living in this material universe.
Two Noetic/Intellect Realms and Two Imaginal Realms
The mystics talk about two Intellectual/ Noetic, ‘Aqli, Realms, and two Imaginal Realms, Mithāl. One that is Nuzūlῑ, descending, and one that is Ṣu’ūdῑ, ascending. Our “truth”, Ḥaqῑqa, before descending “down” to this material universe, had to first go through the descending Intellectual and Imaginal Realms before reaching our material universe. Likewise, while living in this material universe called Dunyā, one can ascend to the ascending Imaginal Realm and the ascending Intellectual Realm, with their spirit. This ascension can happen through shuhūd, spiritual witnessing or vision, and it can also happen as soon as a human being dies and its spirit ascends to the higher realms. If it happens through death, then everyone has to make the ascension without any choice and every spirit will then be able to see the different realms.
In the world of ‘Irfān or Tasawwuf or what we call in English, Islamic Spiritualism or Mysticism, the whole existence is compared to two arches, Qaws. One arch is descending, and the other arch is ascending. In the case of the descending arch, the arch starts from the Intellectual Realm, ‘Aql, and goes through the Imaginal Realm, Mithāl, until it reaches us in the material universe. The descending Intellectual Realm gives the rest of the realms its “grace”, Fayḍ, and their existence. Our existence is due to the descendent realm of Intellect and all the “truth” of different objects both from the Imaginal and material realm descends from it.
In the case of the ascending arch, we take off from the material universe and go through the realm of the ascending Mithāl, the Imaginal Realm, until we reach the ascending ‘Aql, Intellectual Realm. The ascending Intellectual Realm does not provide “grace”, Fayḍ, to us, and one is not dependent on it for our existence as we were in the case of the descending Intellectual Realm.
As previously said, in the descending arch you have a descending Intellectual Realm and after that a descending Imaginal Realm, and finally our material universe. A question that should be asked here is, what is it that is descending? The answer is, all realities or truths of everything in our existence are descending to the lower dimensions. Everything that exists here on the material universe, exists in a more perfect form in the Imaginal Realm, and they in their turn, both the material universe and Imaginal Realm, exists in the ultimate perfect form in the Realm of Intellect.
When the truth of a certain human being is decreed to descend to the material universe without any free will, and gets born and grows up, she has the possibility and the potential to reach a high spiritual level as a wayfarer on the spiritual path, and if she chooses to go down that path, she will have to do a journey “upwards”, an ascension. The journey starts now from the material universe to the ascending Imaginal Realm, and after that to the ascending Intellectual Realm. If that journey is made by a prophet, Imam or mystic before death, they will have -in addition to that journey- another descending journey. That descending journey is again the same descending realms that was discussed, the only difference being that this journey is made by will and desire and the former (before getting born) was by compulsion. The truth of all human beings and the truth of everything else for that matter, have a compulsory descending to the material universe and a compulsory ascending after death.
Between the two journeys (the ascending and the descending made by will and spiritual vision) we have a third journey which takes place within the Names of Allāh and His attributes. The wayfarer travels between the Names to reach perfection and become and acquire those divine attributes of Allāh.
These lofty stations are only for those people who have reached a high spiritual level and delved and melted within Gods essence and attributes, and have reached Tawḥῑd, monotheism by fanā, annihilation in Allāh, and afterwards baqā, subsistence, like the prophets, the Imams and the mystics. These people can make such spiritual journeys before death, and when they make that ascension, and become successful in journeying in the Names of Allāh, they also have to go through a descending journey back to the material universe. And just when they reached the end of their third trip they step on board their final journey, which is to go from the creation to the creation, with Allāh. In sum, the wayfarer has undergone four journeys all in all.
The Necessity of the Imaginal Realm
Muslim philosophers argue that there must exist an Intermediate Realm between the Intellectual Realm and the Material Realm. The reason is that these realms or dimensions are the creators of each other, in stages or levels in a hierarchical way. The philosophical rule of al Wāḥid, the One, enters the stage here. The rule which says that, nothing will be issued or released from the One, except one. Allāh is One, so He issues or creates only one, and that one is the Intellectual Realm. This realm of Intellect is the one which creates everything else. And it, in its turn creates the Imaginal Realm. In other words, kithra, the multitude of everything we see in this material realm cannot be issued by the Intellectual Realm directly, if it doesn’t have an intermediate between itself and the material realm. And this intermediate realm should have the features and the attributes of both the material realm and the realm of Intellect. With all of this said, it does not mean in any sense, that Allāh is taking a redundant and a heedless stand towards the creation. He, from one perspective and according to mysticism and the narrations of the Imams, is before, after, above, below and inside everything, and from another perspective he isn’t. He is near and He is far, He is the First and He is the Last. And this is not being paradoxical at all, it all depends on how you want to look at it and what spectacles you are using. The realm of Intellect creates everything, but everything that the realm of Intellect is creating comes with the permission of Allāh. And thus, it is dependent to Allāh.
In the Intellectual Realm, all things and realities exist but have a non-material existents. They still don’t have forms, size, color etc. The non-material Intellectual Realm with its grandeur creates the Imaginal Realm, Mithāl, where things receive their forms, color, size, etc. but are still non-material; Therefor the name “imaginal”. After that stage, the Imaginal Realm creates our universe, where all object/ things receive their material attributes. These realms are all intertwined to each other in a hierarchical way, and influence each other from “up to down”. Whenever the word “up” or “down” is used, the reader should notice that there is no physical up or down which is meant, but these words are used to show the importance and the grandeur of the different levels of these realms. As mentioned previously these realms or dimensions exist simultaneously, hence we don’t have any “up” or “down”.
From one angle the Imaginal Realm created and is the cause of our material universe directly, without any intermediate, but from another angle so did the Intellectual Realm, the Intellectual Realm was the universe’s indirect creator. The Imaginal Realm is called the inner dimension of the material universe, while the realm of Intellect is called, in its turn, the inner dimension of the Imaginal Realm and the inner, inner dimension of the material universe.
To give a parable, we could say that the Intellectual Realm is far too powerful and cannot create something as tiny as our universe without creating the Intermediate Realm first. Only for the sake of making it more tangible we could compare it with the Big Bang theory, with its grand explosion and all its power. According to the Big Bang theory, the Big Bag was the originator of all the estimated 400 billion galaxies, and only one of these galaxies in their turn created our solar system, and in our solar system our tiny earth came into being. Could the great and magnificent Big Bang, with all its power, create our tiny planet without first creating the galaxies and their major stars first? The answer is as stated above about the Intellectual Realm, that is, from one angle it is the material realms creator, and from another angle it is its indirect creator. The Muslim philosophers and mystics argue that there must be an intermediate state, level or channel for our material universe to come into being, which without it, it would be an impossibility.
Al Qayṣarῑ (d. 1350) says in his book, The Interpretation of the Bezels of Wisdom, Fuṣūṣ al Ḥikam, chapter six of his prelude:
اعلم انّ العالم المثالي هو عالمٌ روحانيٌ من جوهرٍ نوراني شبيه بالجوهر الجسماني في کونه محسوساً مقدارياً وبالجوهر المجرد العقلي في کونه نورانياً وليس بجسمٍ مرکب ماديٍ ولا جوهر مجرد عقلي لانه برزخٌ وحد فاصل بينهما.
“Know that the Imaginal Realm is a spiritual realm from the substance of Light (and non-material) and because of it being tangible and having forms, it is like the physical substance (and the material Realm) and because of it being of light (and non-material) it is like the non-material substance of Intellect. Therefore, it’s not physical or material and unlike the non-material substance of Intellect it is an intermediate state between these two realms.”
Mystics argue that these realms are channels, where the Divine Grace, fayḍ, of Allāh goes through and reaches everything existing. There is an “influenced and the influencer” relationship between these dimensions. Without the channel of the Imaginal Realm, the influence of the Intellectual Realm would not have reached us. The necessity of the Imaginal Realm and the relationship these realms have with one another is reflected in our existence.
The Attached/Connected Imaginal Realm and the Detached/Separated/Disconnected Imaginal Realm
As was mentioned earlier, there are two different Imaginal Realms which are called the Imaginal Descended, Ṣu’ūdῑ Mithāl and the Imaginal Ascended, Nuzūlῑ Mithāl. Another name for both of these realms is the Detached/ Separated or Disconnected Imaginal, Mithāl al Munfaṣil.
However, there is another form of Imaginal Realm which is unconnected to these two realms of Imaginal. It is called the Attached or Connected Imaginal, Mithāl al Muttaṣil. One may ask, what is this realm connected to? The mystics respond by saying that it is connected to the Nafs, the soul or the self, and sometimes translated as the ego.
Let us begin with the topic of this article which is the Disconnected Imaginal or Mithāl al Munfaṣil. As was mentioned earlier, this realm has to do with the Intermediary Realm between the material universe and the realm of Intellect. It is the channel through which we receive the Grace of Allāh or the grace of the realm of Intellect. Everything that exists in the material universe exists in the realm of the Disconnected Imaginal, but in a more perfect way. In this realm we have earth, heavens and galaxies, but they exist in a different, more perfect form. The famous “Seven Heavens” which have been mentioned over and over again in the Qur’ān and in the prophetic narrations, all exist within this realm; the famous “Night and Heavenly Journey” of the Prophet also called the Mi’rāj happened here; the meetings with the different prophets in the different levels of the Heaven took place here; all the spiritual witnessing or visions which has a form is connected to this realm; the visions of Angels in body forms are here; the “embodiment” of all deeds bad and good are here; Hell and Paradise are here; the embodiment of human intentions, good or bad, are here; the “questions of the grave”, Qabr, are here.
Another important feature of this realm is that as soon as death occurs, even if the person has not been physically buried, the “questions of the grave” will occur. Even if the person is burned and only ashes are left of him, the questions of the grave will occur. In other words, this realm has nothing to do with the material and physical entities; rather, it is all spiritual and is realized as soon as physical death occurs. In other words, as soon as a person dies, their Barzakh starts and that is why Barzakh is also referred to as the Minor Resurrection.
All of these incidents are in an awakened and non-sleeping state. The mystic and the prophets and the Imams who witness all of these do it in a state of awareness. Whereas if one witnesses such visions in a sleeping state, they are in the realm of the Connected Imaginal. This realm has to do with our self/ soul, Nafs. To be able to understand the different spiritual visions the mystic acquires, he needs to know and be able to differentiate between these two realms, and that plays a crucial part for the mystic.
The realm of the Connected Imaginal, as was mentioned earlier, has to do with the Nafs, the Self, ego or the soul. It is the soul, which is the spirit and body combined, which travels and has visions in sleep. Therefore, everything that one may see in their dreams has to do with the realm of the Connected Imaginal. It is called “connected”, because of its connection to the nafs or the soul.
The relationship between these two realms are like the relationship between oceans and canals or like the Sun and its rays which penetrate a window. The realm of the Connected Imaginal is regarded as specific and the realm of the Disconnected Imaginal as general.
Other differences between these two realms of Imaginal is that the descending Imaginal does not have the same attributes as the ascending Imaginal. For example, the embodiment of deeds and intentions, Hell and Paradise, rewards and retribution, reprisal and reckoning, all of it happens in the ascending Imaginal Realm. The descending Imaginal Realm does not have the spiritual journey which the mystics mention or the evolution for “perfecting” human attributes. In other words it does not have the journey or evolution for the perfection of human beings or the wayfarer.
The Imaginal Realm Through the History of Islamic Philosophy
Plato (d. 347 B.C.), was the first person who mentioned a realm of Intellect, and he called it for the realm of Muthul, the Platonic Forms. Plato’s Platonic Forms should not be mixed or confused with the realm of Mithāl, the Imaginal Realm, mentioned within Islamic philosophy and mysticism. He believed that there were “Ten Intellects” (The History of Western Philosophy, Frederick Copleston, vol. 1, p. 219). Early Muslim philosophers took this thought of the Ten Intellects with them into Islamic Philosophy. Yet there were some differences. The main difference and question was if these Ten Intellects were ten hierarchical, Ṭūlῑ, intellects, or if they were ten horizontal, Arḍῑ, intellects. And it’s here that we see a split in this particular question (there are many more) between the school of Ḥusayn ibn Sῑnā and Suhrawardῑ.
Ḥusayn ibn Sῑnā (d. 1037), also known as Abū Alῑ Sῑnā, and his school of Philosophy called the Walkers, Mashā’ῑn, believed that the last of the ten hierarchical intellects, called “The Active Intellect”, ‘Aql al Fa’āl, was the Imaginal Realm (The Summary of The End of Wisdom, Ḥusaynῑ Nejād, p. 221 and Al Isharāt, Ḥusayn ibn Sῑnā vol. 3, p. 359- 362). The school of Ibn Sῑnā is famous for not having reached the intellectual conclusion of any realm being in between the realm of Intellect and the material realm.
Shaykh al Ishrāq (d. 1191) was the first philosopher which mentioned and proved this realm by using rational arguments. His school of philosophy called the Illuminators, Ishrāqῑn, believed that only some of the ten horizontal intellects was the Imaginal Realm (The Summary of The End of Wisdom, Ḥusaynῑ Nejād, p. 221 and Ḥikmat Ishrāq, Suhrawardῑ, vol. 2, p. 232).
Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1640) and his school of philosophy, abolished the thought of the intellects being ten or having any permanent or specific number for that matter, the idea which was invented by Plato. The argument was that there can be much more than ten, and that it is an impossibility to know, even with spiritual visions about the different intellects within the realm of Intellect. One cannot get an accurate information of how many intellects which exist in the realm of Intellect with all its grandeur and perfection.
Logical Reasons for the Existence of the Imaginal Realm
The great mystic and philosopher, Mullā Ṣadrā, came forth with logical reasons to prove the Imaginal Realm, below is the summary of his logical argument for the Imaginal Realm.1
- We can imagine things like a mountain, a desert and much more within ourselves.
- We know that these images are non-material.
- Thus the images within our mind are non-material.
- But simultaneously, are these images not purely noetic (‘Aqlānῑ) either, for they do share some characteristics of the material realm. For instance, they are visible, they have color, size and etc.
- The result is that these images are neither material nor purely noetic, but are images which have both some non-material and some noetic characteristics of both realms. And these images are found in the Imaginal Realm, situated between the material realm and the realm of Intellect/ noetic.
The Imaginal Realm in the Qur’ān
The word Barzakh has been mentioned in three verses of the Noble Qur’ān, which are:
“That I might do righteousness in that which I left behind.” No! It is only a word he is saying; and behind them is a barrier until the Day they are resurrected.” (Chapter 23, verse 100)
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى مَرَجَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَيۡنِ هَـٰذَا عَذۡبٌ۬ فُرَاتٌ۬ وَهَـٰذَا مِلۡحٌ أُجَاجٌ۬ وَجَعَلَ بَيۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخً۬ا وَحِجۡرً۬ا مَّحۡجُورً۬ا (٥٣)
“And it is He who has released [simultaneously] the two seas, one fresh and sweet and one salty and bitter, and He placed between them a barrier and prohibiting partition.” (Chapter 25, verse 53)
بَيۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخٌ۬ لَّا يَبۡغِيَانِ (٢٠)
“Between them is a barrier [so] neither of them transgresses.” (Chapter 55, verse 20)
As can be seen, the term Barzakh has been translated to “barrier” in all of the above verses. It could also have been translated to the word Hijab, which means veil. What is meant by the word veil, is again a barrier; a barrier between two things. The words Hijab and Barzakh are sometimes synonyms to one another as they both can be used to mean a barrier. But only one of the above three verses is relevant to the topic of this study, which is verse number 100 in chapter 23.
In this verse of the Qur’ān, the topic is clearly the state after death until the Day of Resurrection, were all people will be gathered. It is very clearly understood from this verse that there is a realm between this material universe and the Day of Resurrection.
Another verse which refers to Barzakh is the following:
ٱلنَّارُ يُعۡرَضُونَ عَلَيۡہَا غُدُوًّ۬ا وَعَشِيًّ۬اۖ وَيَوۡمَ تَقُومُ ٱلسَّاعَةُ أَدۡخِلُوٓاْ ءَالَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ أَشَدَّ ٱلۡعَذَابِ (٤٦)
“The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and evening. And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], “Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment.” (Chapter 40: 46)
This fire which the sinners are exposed to morning and evening, is the future abode of the inhabitants of Hellfire. According to the narration of the prophet regarding the interpretation of this verse, when one dies he or she will be destined to paradise or to hell, and every morning and evening the fire will be presented to the future inhabitants of Hell. He or she will be told, that this will be your future abode when the Resurrection arrives (Biḥār al Anwār, V. 6, p. 275).
Another hadith which presents an interpretation for this verse, comes from Imam Ja’far as Ṣādiq (d. 765). It says that this event will occur before the Resurrection, because the Resurrection does not have a morning or an evening. Therefore, if there is an introduction to the fire, during mornings and evenings, it is referring to Barzakh (At Tabarsῑ V. 8, p. 818).
Other verses that are mentioned in connection with Barzakh are:
وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمۡوَٲتَۢاۚ بَلۡ أَحۡيَآءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ يُرۡزَقُونَ (١٦٩)
“And never think of those who have been killed in the cause of Allāh as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision.” (Chapter 3: 169)
وَمَنۡ أَعۡرَضَ عَن ذِڪۡرِى فَإِنَّ لَهُ ۥ مَعِيشَةً۬ ضَنكً۬ا وَنَحۡشُرُهُ ۥ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ أَعۡمَىٰ (١٢٤)
“And whoever turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind.” (Chapter 20: 124)
With this being said, we will now turn our glances to the narrations and see if we can find anything about Barzakh there.
The Imaginal Realm in the Narrations
All narrations which mentions the word Qabr/ grave, or Barzakh/ the Intermediate State, have to do with the Imaginal Realm. All narrations discussing the Hereafter/ al Ᾱkhira, is also referred to the Imaginal Realm. In other words, all narrations wherein the words grave, Barzakh and the Hereafter are mentioned are referring to the Imaginal Realm.
All the narrations mentioning the Hereafter “embodied”, regardless of whether it has to do with the embodiment of our deeds, our intentions, Hell and Paradise, the seven heavens, the torments of the grave, etc., have to do with the Imaginal Realm. All the spiritual witnessing or visions that some mystics, Imams or prophets may have, take place in this realm.
Here, some examples from the narrations will be presented.
قال امام الصادق(ع): البرزخ هو القبر وهو الثّواب و العقاب بين الدّنيا و الآخرة.
Imam Ṣādiq (A) has said: “Barzakh is the grave, the reward, and the punishment between this realm and the Hereafter.“2
It can be inferred that the Imam introduces the realm of Barzakh as an intermediate state between this material realm and the Hereafter.
In another narration from Imam Ṣādiq, when asked about Barzakh and what it is, he replies:
القبر منذ حين موته إلي يوم القيامة.
“The Grave from the time of death until the time of the Resurrection.”3
This is again an indication that there is a “time laps” between Judgment Day and death.
The Differences between the Imaginal Realm, Barzakh/Mithāl, and Resurrection/Ma’ād
- Barzakh occurs instantly at the time of death, and is individually experienced, being called the Minor Resurrection, whereas the Major Resurrection happens to everyone and starts instantly with the end of the material realm.
- In the Imaginal Realm, the spirit receives an imaginal, mithālῑ body, which has some of the attributes of the material and non-material Realm. It is a combination of the realm of Intellect and the material realm. Whereas at the time of Resurrection, the physical body will be resurrected together with the spirit.
- The punishment at the time of Resurrection is more severe than the one in Barzakh, and the rewards at the time of Resurrection enjoy a more elevated state compared to the ones in Barzakh.
A brief introduction has been given to Islamic cosmology and that these realms work in a hierarchical, intertwined and dependent state. And that our existence in the material universe is depended on the other realms. We also reached the conclusion that there are two realms of Intellect/ Noetic and two realms of Imaginal, but only one material universe. And that the wayfarer or the mystic travels through these realms to be able to reach perfection and spiritual annihilation. It has been a very interesting and fruitful article about the Imaginal Realm, and the intention was to introduce this realm to an English speaking audience and to familiarize the Imaginal Realm through a philosophical and mystical perspective without using difficult technical and philosophical jargons. I have tried to answer to the most basic of questions in this article about the Imaginal Realm, and give a strong introduction about this realm to the dear reader. Many more details and questions can be asked about this realm, but that would be out of our scope. For the more interested one, the books in the reference section below is strongly recommended for further reading.
Wa Minallāhi Tawfῑq – And from Allāh is Success
- Sharḥ Fuṣūṣ al Ḥikam, Qayṣarῑ, sixth chapter.
- Education of Philosophy, Miṣbāḥ Yazdῑ
- Summary of Nihāyatul Ḥikma- The Summary of The End of Wisdom, Sayyid Alῑ Akbar Ḥusayn Nejād
- Yazdānpanāh, Mabanῑ wa Usūl ‘Irfān Naẓarῑ
- Amῑnῑ Nejād, An Introduction to the Collection of Islamic Mysticism.
- Al Futūhat al Makkiya, V. 1
- Ibn ‘Arabῑ, the inheritor of the prophets, by William Chittick
- Jandῑ, Sharḥ Fusūs al Ḥikam
Honorable scholars who helped
- Shaykh Faḍlῑ
- Shaykh Ja’farῑyān
- Sayyid Ṣadrus Sādāt
A convert to Islam, I joined the seminary of Qom in 2008 and am currently doing a masters in Islamic mysticism.