Logic & Philosophy

On Approaching Atheism

The below piece is a translation and summary of a lecture given by the contemporary Saudi Shī’a scholar and polemicist, Shaykh Aḥmad Salmān al-Aḥmadī, on the topic of how to approach and dispute with atheists. Among the challenges facing religious thought today is the overshadowing of atheism into our societies and youth. We see that … Read more

Shaykh al-Ishraq’s Attitude Towards Mantiq (Logic)

One of the areas in Illuminationist philosophy that has yet to be extensively studied by scholars is the views and attitude of Suhrawardī (1154–1191) towards logic. While some studies have been conducted, they appear to be in their infancy and by a limited number of scholars, as opposed to studies that have been conducted on … Read more

The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism | Summary of Article 3 [Knowledge and Perception]

Preliminaries 1. The subject-matter of this article is the identification of the substance of knowledge and the soul from the perspective of it being immaterial or material – at all levels of perception (sensory, imaginative, and intellectual). 2. Perception is divided into three: a) sensory (when senses are connected to external reality) b) imaginative (a … Read more

The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism | Summary of Article 2 [Philosophy and Sophistry]

Before a summary of the second article in The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism (Usul-i falsafeh va ravesh-i ri’alism) titled Philosophy and Sophistry, a brief overview of three groups is important to note: 1) The Sophists: They have existed since 5th century BC, much before the likes of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. … Read more

The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism | Summary of Article 1 [What is Philosophy?]

The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism (Usul-i falsafeh va ravesh-i ri’alism) is one of ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī’s most important works. It is a result of several private discussion circles organized by ‘Allāmah himself where numerous scholars from different backgrounds would attend. In total, the work is a collection of 14 different articles that … Read more

Why Scientism is Not Only Unscientific But Also The Enemy Of Science

By Amir Mahdi Ghafarian Scientism can be defined as the belief that science, and more precisely the natural sciences, has the most authoritative, reliable and authentic means by which humanity can get an understanding of reality and “truth.” There are two forms of scientism: strong scientism and weak scientism. Strong scientism implies that the validity … Read more

Intellectual Spheres and Their Impact on the Type of Hypotheses Entertained in a Study

By Shaykh Haider Hobbollah / Translated by Ali Jabbar Original Source For every intellectual framework, there are hypotheses which are considered possible and others which are considered impossible. What I mean by this is that a person who lives within a certain sphere and a framework will not have certain hypotheses. In contrast, if he … Read more

The Need for Intellectual Sciences | Ayatullah Ghulam Reza Fayyazi

Translated by Saiyid Hasan Ali Rizvi Religion is not just [a set of] rules. The rulings themselves are only useful for someone who has a correct belief system. Otherwise, with an incorrect system of beliefs, none of these rules have any special value, even if performed perfectly. In addition, if someone has [an incorrect understanding] of … Read more

Knowledge by Presence | Introduction to Islamic Epistemology – Part 2

Read Part 1 The Definition of Presential Knowledge* and Acquired Knowledge There are different ways to understand and recognize pain.   You’ve no doubt had these experiences in your life where you got sick or got into a bad accident and felt a lot of pain.  You’ve also probably had friends or family members that have … Read more

Concepts and General Principles | Introduction to Islamic Epistemology – Part 1

Compiled by Saiyid Hasan Ali Rizvi and Sayyid Ali Imran God Willing, we will be posting up a series of posts introducing the subject of Epistemology or Theory of Knowledge – Ma’rifat Shināsi in Farsi, or Naẓarīyah al-Ma’rifah in Arabic. These posts are primarily based off of two works. First of them being Dar Āmadī bar … Read more

Creation, Eternity, and Modern Cosmology: A Critique of Dr. Hawking’s Views

Compiled by: Saiyid Hasan Ali Rizvi [[email protected]] When we enter college or the workplace, or any place in the modern world, we are oftentimes pummeled with various difficult questions to our beliefs.  It can be tough sometimes to maintain our identity in the face of these attacks.  Without satisfactory answers and replies to these objections, … Read more

[Book Summary] Required and Sufficient Knowledge in Religion – Chapter Three

Chapter One | Chapter Two | Chapter Three Chapter Three: Degree of Knowledge Required by Religion In his attempt to determine whether True Certainty is expected in areas where it is possible to achieve it and what degree of knowledge is expected by Islam in areas where True Certainty is not attainable, the author jumps straight … Read more

[Book Summary] Required and Sufficient Knowledge in Religion – Chapter Two

Chapter One | Chapter Two | Chapter Three Chapter Two: Possibility of Attaining Certainty In Religious Beliefs Continuing on with where he (Hussain Zadeh) left off, in the second chapter – a relatively shorter one compared to the other chapters in the book – the author attempts to answer whether it is possible to reach True … Read more

[Book Summary] Required and Sufficient Knowledge in Religion – Chapter One

Muhammad Hussain Zadeh is a renowned scholar of epistemology (and other subjects) in the city of Qom, Iran. He has written numerous works in the field of epistemology in general, and specifically in Islamic epistemology. In these upcoming posts, I intend to summarize my readings from a series authored by him titled Religious Epistemology, comprised … Read more