Ammaar Muslim

Revisiting Abu al-Khattab and the Khattabiyya (A Response)

كان أبو الخطاب أحمق فكنت أحدثه فكان لا يحفظ، و كان يزيد من عنده Abu al-Khattab was a fool – I would narrate to him so he would not preserve it, and he would add from himself. Imam al-Sadiq Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction The first installment of a promised multi-part ‘response’ to my … Read more

Rivalry between Companions: The Case of Mufaddal b. Umar (Pt. I)

فلما انصرفت إلى الكوفة أقبلت علي الشيعة فمزقوني كل ممزق، يأكلون لحمي ويشتمون عرضي، حتى أن بعضهم استقبلني فوثب في وجهي، وبعضهم قعد لي في سكك الكوفة يريد ضربي، ورموني بكل بهتان So when I reached Kufa, the Shīʿa turned towards me, and began tearing me to shreds, eating my flesh and disparaging my honour, such … Read more

Ali b. Yaqtin: The Imam’s Secret Agent

“He had a great status with Abi al-Hasan Musa b. Ja’far, peace be upon them. A great standing in the Ta’ifa (sect as a whole)” Tusi’s summation of Ali b. Yaqtin[1] Introduction Sometimes, and through a curious mix of dedication and fortune, tangible evidence is found to make what we read in our old and … Read more

Abdallah b. Saba – Man or Myth?

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction Whether a man called Abdallah b. Saba existed historically or not has become a fraught question in light of the latter’s relevance in polemics against the Shia. After all, it is this supposed former Jew from Yemen who stands accused of single handedly causing an irreparable schism among early … Read more

The Worldview of the Ghulat (Pt. II)

“Be on the lookout over your children so that the Ghulat do not corrupt them … the Ghali returns to us (i.e. from his heighty beliefs) but we do not accept him, while the Muqassir catches up to us (i.e. our real station) so we accept him …” – Imam al-Sadiq Originally posted on Shiitic … Read more

The Worldview of the Ghulat (Pt. I)

A group from our Shia will love us until they will say about us that which the Jews said about Uzayr and that which the Christians said about Isa b. Maryam, so neither are they from us, nor are we from them – Imam al-Sajjad Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction The original Ghulat did … Read more

The Imams Against the Ghulat

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. “We have woken up (i.e. a time has reached) and there is no one who is more inimical (an enemy to us) than those who claim to love us” – Imam al-Sadiq Introduction The most serious challenge to the school of Ahl al-Bayt came from the Ghulat. This is because, … Read more

Sayyid Sīstānī on Why Shīʿa Ḥadīth Contradict (Pt. I)

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction The presence of contradictions between Ḥadīth (reports) attributed to the Imams within the Shīʿa corpus is an undeniable problem. One that requires explanation. This is especially so because the problem has a long back-history of being weaponised by detractors seeking to expose the inconsistency between it and the theological doctrine of … Read more

Sayyid Sīstānī on Why Shīʿa and Sunni Ḥadīth Differ

Originally published on Shiitic Studies What follows is a translation of a small part of the notes of Sayyid ʿAlī al-Sīstānīʾs Baḥth al-Khārij (advance lessons) on Uṣūl al-Fiqh (legal theory) as transcribed by one of his students, Sayyid Hāshim al-Hāshimī, dating back to approximately forty years ago[1]. The discussion concerns a major topic in Uṣūl al-Fiqh, which is, the problem … Read more

A New Approach to Authenticating Shia Hadith – The Bahth al-Fihristi

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. What is Fihrist? Why Fihrist? Most readers will possess a rudimentary understanding of Rijal (or Ilm al-Rijal), the discipline in which the status of a narrator is studied in order to evaluate whether his reports should be accepted or not. Much less is known about the Faharis (sing. Fihrist) – the name given to works composed by early … Read more

Tusi and the Tahdhibayn (Pt. I)

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction Shaykh Tusi (d. 460) stands out among that famous trio (the other two being Kulayni and Saduq) for having authored two of the ‘Four Books’ of Hadith (i.e. Tahdhib al-Ahkam and al-Istibsar fi ma-khtalafa min al-Akhbar). These books are rightly considered to be the bed-rock of Twelver Imami jurisprudence. Despite the recognition … Read more

Did the Imams Recite Q. 5:95 in a Different Way?

A key verse setting out the prohibition on hunting during the Hajj and its attendant penalty is given below: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ وَمَن قَتَلَهُ مِنكُم مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاءٌ مِّثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ O you who believe, do not kill game while you are in the consecrated … Read more

Kulayni and al-Kafi (Pt. II)

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Does He Have a Methodology? Kulayni does not give us the Manhaj (methodology) he follows when selecting reports for inclusion in al-Kafi. The only thing we have to work with is a critical passage towards the end of the Khutba (preface) where he outlines three principles that should be followed in the face of … Read more

Kulayni and al-Kafi (Pt. I)

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction The Four Books (i.e. al-Kafi, Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih, Tahdhib al-Ahkam, al-Istibsar fi ma-khtalafa min al-Akhbar) are rightly considered to be the bed-rock of Twelver Imami Hadith. Despite the recognition they have achieved in Shi’i discourse, many commit the error of treating them under the same rubric, without considering the vastly different motivations … Read more

What is the First thing that is Wajib on Humans? The View of an Akhbari Scholar

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction Not everyone in the Shi’i scholarly tradition has been on-board with the direction of travel of systematic theology, beginning as it does with the Kalam (rational theology) of the Mu’tazili influenced Baghdadi scholars in the Buyid era, passing by way of the Peripatetic influenced-thinking of Khwaja Nasir al-Din Tusi (d. 1274), and … Read more

Did the Sahaba become Kafir? Pt. I

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction There are reports which indicate that all the companions were destroyed except three, these were then joined by four others, and they became seven who were saved. Were the saved companions only seven? Furthermore, if this destruction is taken to be limited to their fate in the next world then we … Read more

Are Shia Hadiths Reliable?

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction One of the claims made by those seeking to weaken confidence in our Hadith corpus is that many of the books of the companions of the Imams were affected by the hidden hand of the Ghulat, who were inserting reports into these books, before distributing the tainted material among … Read more

The Grandson of George and Temporary Marriage

Originally published on Shiitic Studies. Introduction A more distinctive feature of the Imami Madhhab is its acceptance of Mut’a (temporary marriage), which it claims was sanctioned by the Qur’an and the Prophet, before being banned by the second Caliph. One would therefore expect to find support for this practice from the early Salaf, before the crystallization of the various theological … Read more

Did the Imams praise Abu Bakr and Umar?

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. ما على وجه الارض شئ أحب إلي من التقية There is nothing on the face of the Earth more beloved to me than Taqiyya – Imam al-Sadiq Introduction: This paper will be considered by some as belonging to the genre of Shi’i-Sunni polemics, but this would be a mis-characterization. It is … Read more

Salman and the Mileu of Ghulu

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction It is not hard to account for the presence of Ghulati reports in the Imami corpus in light of the socio-historic contexts of those times. The rapid expansion of the Islamic empire meant that early Muslims came into contact with proponents of other religions. The absorption of non-Arab Mawali … Read more

Some Notes on the Status of Salman in Early Shi’ism (Pt. 2)

Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction Occasionally, historical figures transcend the limited planes of their earthly life to become symbols around whom communities polarize and legends grow. One such figure from early Islam is Salman the Persian. Those with an esoteric persuasion (deemed Ghulat or ‘extremists’ by their opponents) were prone to exaggerate his status, … Read more

Some Notes on the Status of Salman in Early Shi’ism (Pt. 1)

By Ammaar Muslim – Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. أدرك سلمان العلم الاول والعلم الاخر، وهو بحر لا ينزح، وهو منّا أهل البيت Salman attained the knowledge of the First and the Last, and he is a sea which does not drain, and he is from us the People of the House – Attributed to Imam al-Sadiq عليه … Read more

Muhammad b. Sinan: A Controversial Narrator (II)

By Ammaar Muslim – Originally posted on Shiitic Studies Was he Praised by the Imam? There exist narrations in which Muhammad b. Sinan is being praised by Imam al-Jawad عليه السلام عن أبي طالب عبد الله بن الصلت القمي قال: دخلت على أبي جعفر الثاني عليه السلام في آخر عمره فسمعته يقول: جزى الله صفوان بن … Read more

Muhammad b. Sinan: A Controversial Narrator (I)

By Ammaar Muslim – Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. Introduction Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Sinan (d. 220) was a descendant of Zahir the Mawla (client) of Amr b. al-Hamiq al-Khuzai, a close companion of Ali who was murdered by Mu’awiya. His grandson, Abu Isa Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Sinan explains that his actual name was Muhammad … Read more

Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman: The Salman al-Farsi of his Times (I)

By Ammaar Muslim – Originally posted on Shiitic Studies. سمعت الرضا عليه السلام يقول: يونس بن عبد الرحمن في زمانه كسلمان الفارسي في زمانه  Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman in his times is like Salman al-Farsi was in his times [Imam al-Ridha] Prologue: A Day in the Life كان ليونس بن عبد الرحمن أربعون أخا يدور عليهم … Read more

Book of Intellect and Knowledge – Mu’jam al-Ahadith al-Mu’tabara | Ayatullah Asif Muhsini

Download PDF The first section (The Book of Intellect and Knowledge) of volume 1 of Ayatullah Muhammad Asif Muhsini’s 8-volume work Mu’jam al-Ahadith al-Mu’tabara has now been completed and can be downloaded. The work is being translated by brother Ammaar Muslim. For further information about the work, author and translator, refer to the book and … Read more

The Need for ‘Ilm al-Rijal – Shaykh al-Suwaydan

This discussion is taken from 2 of 166 lessons given by Shaykh Suwaydan. The audios for the lessons were transcribed and translated by Br. Ammaar —————- There existed and still exists great debate amongst our scholars (both the Qudama and the Muta’akhkhirin) over the degree of need for ‘Ilm ar-Rijal. That is, while others swear by … Read more

Blood on Hisham b. al-Hakam’s Hands

By Br. Ammaar Was Hisham Responsible for the Murder of al-Kadhim (a)? Hisham Culpable There exist narrations in our sources which hold Hisham responsible (directly or indirectly) for the murder of al-Kadhim عليه السلام by the Abbasid authorities. He stands accused of continuing to engage in public debate despite an explicit order from the Imam for him to refrain from … Read more

Hisham b. al-Hakam: God = A Body Unlike Other Bodies? – Part 4

By Br. Ammaar كان من غلمان أبي شاكر الزنديق، وهو جسمي ردي He was a student of Abi Shakir the Zindiq and a wretched corporealist – Sa’d b. Abdallah al-Qummi (d. 301) was not a fan of Hisham A Body Unlike Other bodies Would not considering God to be a body be likening Him to his creatures (who happen … Read more

Hisham b. al-Hakam: God is a Body? – Part 3

By Ammaar Hussein Click for Part 2 وأول من عرف في الإسلام أنه قال إن الله جسم هو هشام بن الحكم The First person in Islam known to have said ‘Allah is a Body’ is Hisham b. al-Hakam (Ibn Taymiyya) اليهود أكثرهم مشبّهة وكان بدء ظهور التّشبيه في الإسلام من الرّوافض مثل هشام بن الحكم … Read more

Hisham b. al-Hakam: Founder of a Theological School – Part 2

By Ammaar Hussein Click for Part 1 دعا له الصادق عليه السلام فقال: أقول لك ما قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم لحسان: لا تزال مؤيدا بروح القدس ما نصرتنا بلسانك I say to you what the Messenger of Allah said to Hassan b. Thabit: You will never stop being aided by the … Read more

Hisham b. al-Hakam: Defender of the Madhhab – Part 1

By Ammaar Hussein Click for Part 2 ورفعه الصادق عليه السلام في الشيوخ وهو غلام. وقال: هذا ناصرنا بقلبه ولسانه ويده al-Sadiq عليه السلام elevated him to be at par with the elders while he was still a youth. He said: This is our defender by his heart, tongue and hand [Manaqib of Ibn Shahr Ashub] Hisham … Read more