Chronology of events leading up to the death of the Prophet (s) and immediately after – according to the research of Ayatullah Yusafi Gharawi
11th Hijri, end of Safar:
– The beginning of Prophet’s (s) illness. He was put to bed rest for recovery.
– The Prophet (s) gives an order to form an army under the leadership of Usama bin Zayd, to face the Ghassanids, who had killed one of the messengers of the Prophet (s) and a number of Muslims in the battle of Mu’tah.
– The Prophet (s) ties the flag of Usama’s army himself, and makes Buraydah bin Husayb Aslami the flag bearer for the army.
– The Prophet (s) constantly orders all the Muhajirin and Ansar of Medina to join the army of Usama and to depart as soon as possible towards Shaam.
– Some of the companions began making excuses, particularly Abu Bakr and Umar, and refused to join Usama’s army. Their excuse was that the age of Usama was only 19 years old at that time. He was the son of Zayd bin Haritha, the commander in the Battle of Mu’tah who was killed in that very battle. This refusal to join Usama’s army continued until the Prophet (s) passed away and it was the reason why the army could not depart before his (s) demise.
– 28th Safar: The Prophet (s) became severely ill.
11th Hijri Rabi’ al-Awwal:
– 2nd Rabi’ al-Awwal: The Prophet (s) passes away
– A number of people from various tribes of the Muhajirin and Ansar meet at Saqīfah Banī Sā’idah. The result of this meeting was the breaking of the pledge of allegiance given at Ghadeer and the usurpation of the caliphate by Umar and some others, who eventually gave their allegiance to Abu Bakr.
– Abu Bakr sent a few people to the house of Amir al-Mu’minin (s) to ask him to pledge allegiance. He (s) refused and asked the men to return. This took place roughly three times: It is not known when the first two requests took place and whether they took place back to back or with a gap. However the details of the third request will be mentioned soon.
– The tribe of Bani Aslam enters Medina to purchase food items – such as dates, and flour – from the markets of Medina like they would every year. Their arrival coincided with the days the Prophet (s) had passed away, however they were not made aware of this.
– Umar misused the tribe of Bani Aslam in order to force the general population of the Ansar and Muhajirin to give their allegiance. In order to receive dates and flour, Umar made Bani Aslam join him in the streets and markets of Medina and drag anyone that they would see to the Masjid in order to place their hand in the hand of Abu Bakr, so that allegiance takes place. If anyone were to show resistance or refused to go to the Masjid, or give allegiance to Abu Bakr, the tribe was asked to behead them.
– Abu Bakr sends forth the army of Muslims to Shaam, just like the Prophet (s) had requested. Usama was the leader of the army and Buraydah bin Husayb Aslami was the flag bearer. This is while Abu Bakr himself was one of those individuals, who – while the Prophet (s) was bedridden and despite his (s) multiple requests – excused himself of this responsibility so that he would be able to stay in Medina when the Prophet (s) passed away.
– 12th Rabi’ al-Awwal, 10 days after the demise of the Prophet (s), Fadak is usurped.
– Lady Fatima (s) goes to Masjid al-Nabawi and gives a sermon (known as Khutab al-Fadakiyyah).
– Amir al-Mu’mineen alongside Lady Fatima, Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn go to the houses of those who participated in the battle of Badr. According to another report, they visited all the Muhajirin and Ansar for 40 days, in order to complete their binding-proof upon them and to request them to assist in reclaiming their right.
– The army of Usama returns to Medina.
– Buraydah bin Husayb returns back to his tribe Bani Aslam and grounds the very flag which the Prophet (s) had tied himself and given to Buraydah, between the members of his tribe and shouts: “I will not pledge allegiance, until Ali bin Abi Talib pledges allegiances.” 80 people from his tribe thus began shouting: “We will not pledge allegiance, until Buraydah pledges allegiance.”
Buraydah then enters Medina with these 80 people. This was the main reason why the caliphate began to put more pressure on Amir al-Mu’mineen and wanted to seek his allegiance under any circumstance, so that similar concerns others had with the caliphate and its legitimacy can be prevented and diminished.
This event took place roughly 50 to 70 days after the demise of the Prophet (s).
– The caliphate finally began operations to force Amir al-Mu’mineen to give allegiance to Abu Bakr. This was when a group of men crowded at the door of Lady Fatima (s).
This event took place 50 days after the demise of the Prophet (s) according to a report by Waqidi and one of the reports of Tabiri.
However, according to another report by Tabiri, this event took place 75 days after the demise of the Prophet (s).
According to this second report, those other reports that mention the demise of Lady Fatima (s) as 75 days after the Prophet (s), should be understood as the day her house was attacked, which led to her injury, her becoming bedridden, and eventually her martyrdom.
– Muhsin was miscarried, and Lady Fatima’s (s) bed rest continued until she passed away.
– Lady Fatima (s) left this world on Tuesday, 3 Jamadi al-Akhirah, 11th Hijri