Chronology of Events on the Day of ‘Ashura In accordance with the interview held with the deceased Doctor Ahmad Birshak in Gashimari-ye Irani, the event of Karbala falls on the Solar calendar on the 21st of Mehr, year 59 (10th October 680) The Solar calendar is not like the Lunar calendar in the sense that Read more about Chronology of Events on the Day of ‘Ashura[…]
During the Imamate of Imam Baqir (s) and Sadiq (s), there was a lot of encouragement from the Imams to their students and companions to begin recording down traditions. As this shift from oral to a written tradition became a culture amongst them, there was naturally a large output of written works over the next Read more about The Transfer of Kufa’s Hadith Heritage to Qom | History of Imami Shi’i Theology (5)[…]
In this post we will continue with the list of scholars from the Ash’ari family who have been categorized into the second and third group, post-migration to Qom. Second Group Zakariyyah bin Idris bin ‘Abdullah al-Ash’ari: Considered a companion of Imam Sadiq, Imam Kadhim and Imam Ridha. Zakariyyah bin Adam bin ‘Abdullah al-Ash’ari: Considered a Read more about The Ash’ari Family II | History of Imami Shi’i Theology (4)[…]
With the decline of intellectual theological discourse in Kufa, Qom had become the base for the Shi’as and would remain influential during the course of the 3rd and 4th century. Before we begin discussing any further, it is important to take a brief glance over how and why Qom became to be such an important Read more about The Ash’ari Family | History of Imami Shi’i Theology (3)[…]
The earliest distinct Shi’i Imami school was that of Kufa’s, which began taking form in the beginning of the 2nd century Hijri during the time of Imam Baqir (s). This era itself is worthy of being studied and as a matter of fact has been studied extensively by Muslim and non-Muslim scholars alike. The various Read more about The Traditionalist-Theologian Phenomenon | History of Shi’i Imami Theology (2)[…]
This is based on my understanding of a recorded lecture posted online a few days ago, of Dr. Ahmad Pakatchi speaking at The International Conference on Interdisciplinary Quranic Studies in Tehran. I hope any written material by him or other researchers will become accessible on this subject, especially given that Dr. Pakatchi is one of Iran’s qualified and well Read more about Time Concepts in the Qur’an – a Historical Perspective[…]
Chronology of events leading up to the death of the Prophet (s) and immediately after – according to the research of Ayatullah Yusafi Gharawi 11th Hijri, end of Safar: – The beginning of Prophet’s (s) illness. He was put to bed rest for recovery. – The Prophet (s) gives an order to Read more about Chronology of events leading up to the death of the Prophet (s)[…]
Below is a translation from an excerpt taken from a book published last month, called The Messenger of Allah and Management of Tensions in Medina (رسول خدا و مدیریت تنشهای مدینه), by Hussain Qadhikhani (a history teacher in Qom), Pages 125-127 This is a really interesting book as it outlines the various phases of the Read more about Don’t Give Your Enemies an Excuse[…]
Given the role Arabic grammar has to play in Qur’anic and Hadith sciences, it is important for one to not just study grammar as it is generally taught today and suffice with it, rather it is crucial to have an understanding of its development and as well as a critical approach towards it in order for its further development and progression. These are summarized notes I have taken over time, describing the general phases of development of Arabic grammar. Due to the usage of technical terms in these notes, the post will be understood by those who already have a brief background in Arabic grammar.
Update 21st December/2015: There was a minor factual mistake in the section of Mukhtar & ‘Umar ibn Sa’ad which has now been corrected.
In many Shi’i communities, it is the 9th of Rabi’ al-Awwal that marks the end of the two-month mourning period that begins with the first of Muharram. The day is celebrated in most communities, for different reasons, and is referred to by a few names, such as Eid al-Zahra, Farhat al-Zahra, Eid-e Shuja, Taj Poshi-e Imam, Yawm Raf’ ul-Qalam, Umar Kushshun etc. The significance of the day is due to four different reasons, all of which have been attributed to it:
- ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (the 2nd caliph) was killed on this day
- The angels lift their pens up for the Shi’as and they do not record anything (i.e. one can commit sins and not be held accountable for them)
- The transfer of the Imamate from Imam Hasan al-‘Askari to his son, Imam al-Mahdi
- Mukhtar killed ‘Umar ibn Sa’d which resulted in the happiness of Imam Sajjad and the women of Bani Hashim
Some communities may celebrate the day for some of the reasons, while some misinformed ones may celebrate the day for all four reasons – particular the first two reasons. In this post, I will simply be looking at the historical validity of all four of these reasons.